Author Archives | traian.calota

Resumptions and Enhancement Concerning the Trading Discounts within the Context of the New Accounting and Fiscal Regulations in Romania

Within a competitive economy, the trading discounts constitute a frequent practice, whereby the asset and service providers instill loyalty to the current customers or propose themselves to draw new clients.
While the economic and legal practice of entities use a diversity of trading discounts, both from the point of view of their name and the complexity of clauses of the trading agreements, the relevant national regulations try to take into account the trading news and innovations.
Our study proposes to specify the impact of the last changes in the accounting and fiscal legislation of trading discounts within the context whereby they may generate fiscal vulnerabilities to all the contracting entities, whether they are profit tax payers or micro-enterprise income tax payers.

  Resumptions and Enhancement Concerning the Trading Discounts within the Context of the New Accounting and Fiscal Regulations in Romania (654.9 KiB, 1,120 hits)

Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Volume VI / 2016, Volume VI, Issue no. 1Comments Off on Resumptions and Enhancement Concerning the Trading Discounts within the Context of the New Accounting and Fiscal Regulations in Romania

Highlights of Tourism Organization and Methods

Our approach is based on the obvious fact that global tourism has turned into a large-scale phenomenon that has been always creating new challenges with a major impact on the economic and social development. Thus, tourism has increasingly become a main economic sector with great potential, whose operation requires an efficient management.
As is well known, Romania has great natural tourism resources: seaside resort, mountain, spa etc. ensuring the performance of this type of activity throughout the year. To this, it is added cultural, entertainment tourism, etc. However, the overall finding shows that the huge potential we talked about is not sufficiently valued and many tourists prefer coastal resorts especially in neighboring countries: Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece, which raises questions on the competitive ability of the Romanian tourism.

  Highlights of Tourism Organization and Methods (864.2 KiB, 1,267 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume IV, Issue no. 5Comments Off on Highlights of Tourism Organization and Methods

Opinions on the Aspects Affecting the Performance of Romanian Tourism

I have taken this theme into discussion, because I consider if of great actuality. Thus, though it is unanimously admitted the fact that the Romanian tourism is a branch of the national economy with a huge potential, and, at official level, it is considered to be a priority domain, its performance is not satisfactory yet. Therefore, I consider it very important to identify the most relevant aspects related to the deficiencies still existing in the system and the causes generating them.

In this regard, my approach aims both at the domestic environment, which is very dynamic and where the tourist activities take place, and also at the extremely strong influence of the foreign environment, materialized by the intensification of the globalization process.

  Opinions on the Aspects Affecting the Performance of Romanian Tourism (274.1 KiB, 1,897 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume IV, Issue no. 4Comments Off on Opinions on the Aspects Affecting the Performance of Romanian Tourism

Financial Key Ratios

This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  Financial Key Ratios (311.5 KiB, 2,205 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume IV, Issue no. 4Comments Off on Financial Key Ratios

Impact Of Information Organization On Performance In Tourism

The unprecedented development of communication, transportation media and infrastructure, as well as the increase of the number and diversity of offers, within the context of growth of incomes of certain social categories, have facilitated during the last few years a significant increase of demand in the touring industry which therefore occupies a more and more important place in the national economy, but also in the world economy.

However, a closer look shows us that the overview of tourism at the national, regional and global level presents progressively stronger characteristics in terms of: general condition of locations, provided facilities, degree of accessibility, level of costs, quality and diversity of the provided services, used technologies, potential risks etc. Therefore, the growth of performance in tourism depends more and more on obtaining, organization of strongly
substantiated basis of information and their exploitation to a maximum level of efficiency.

Starting from these considerations, our endeavor aims at making an (non-exhaustive) analysis of the elements allowing increasing of efficiency of information use in the increase of performance in tourism.

  Impact Of Information Organization On Performance In Tourism (223.1 KiB, 1,734 hits)

Posted in Economics, Information Technology, Volume IV, Issue no. 2Comments Off on Impact Of Information Organization On Performance In Tourism

Case Study on Analysis of Financial Statements at a Furniture Manufacturer

Analysis of the financial statements of a company is an important means to obtain information about how the company operated in the previous period. Interpretation of the evolution of financial indicators does not always prove to be easy, requiring multiple calculations and combined approaches, while the knowledge and understanding of type of business reviewed are essential in the proper interpretation of the results. Thus, the conclusions of the analysis carried out in a professional manner will be able to correctly describe the evolution of the company and to substantiate the user’s decisions.

  Case Study on Analysis of Financial Statements at a Furniture Manufacturer (483.1 KiB, 47,730 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume III, Issue no. 5Comments Off on Case Study on Analysis of Financial Statements at a Furniture Manufacturer

Developments and Thoroughgoing Studies on Taxation of Royalties Obtained by French Non-Residents in Romania

Romanian tax legislation continues to contain contradictory provisions that give it a strong ambiguity and which often generates controversy in interpretation and application. The authors of the research show the situations of tax income from royalties obtained by a French non-resident from a Romanian beneficiary. Thus, are addresses the taxation from the perspective of (i) the law, (ii) the avoidance of double taxation (CEDI) concluded by Romania with other countries and (iii) the EU legislation. Also, the authors present one of the cases of controversy generated by the Romanian tax legislation, which create controversy and maintain a high level of uncertainty in the business environment.

  Developments and Thoroughgoing Studies on Taxation of Royalties Obtained by French Non-Residents in Romania (296.1 KiB, 1,353 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume III, Issue no. 4Comments Off on Developments and Thoroughgoing Studies on Taxation of Royalties Obtained by French Non-Residents in Romania

Improving the Numbers of Financial Statements

Improving the numbers of financial statements can be achieved by several metods such as: recording the revenue too soon, recording bogus revenue, shifting the current expense to a futer or a earlier period, failing to record liabilities or shifting the cureent revenue to a later periods. As beeing science, technology or language of communication the accounting should reflect economic reality of transactions. Legal regulations, knowledge, creativity, management, and innovation spirit are all factors that are applied in practice and these factors contribute to economic reality through science of the reporting or ‘financial position and performance tuning (creative accounting).

  Improving the Numbers of Financial Statements (905.3 KiB, 1,689 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume III, Issue no. 3Comments Off on Improving the Numbers of Financial Statements

Features of Accounting and Tax Treatments Applicable to Intangible Assets of the Research and Development Activities Nature in the Spirit of National Regulations

The XXIst century shows, among others, a special feature aiming at acceleration at a growing speed of the developments of new technologies. Thus, in the context of a fierce competition, great intellectual and financial efforts are made for the research and development of high technologies. Therefore, both at microeconomic and macroeconomic level, it is frequently brought into attention the problem of a correct approach in terms of legal provisions of the accounting and tax treatments for expenses incurred for this purpose. Also, there is a growing need for improvement of the related legal framework, so that research and development should contribute to the economic growth.

  Features of Accounting and Tax Treatments Applicable to Intangible Assets of the Research and Development Activities Nature in the Spirit of National Regulations (1,001.9 KiB, 1,803 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume III, Issue no. 3Comments Off on Features of Accounting and Tax Treatments Applicable to Intangible Assets of the Research and Development Activities Nature in the Spirit of National Regulations

Comparative Fiscal Analysis of Taxation of Income Obtained by Micro-Enterprises in Romania

Year 2013 brought major changes in taxation of income obtained by micro- enterprises in Romania, therefore the fiscal analysis aims to clarify fundamental matters as regards the object and subject of taxation, tax base and calculation method, declaration and payment of micro-enterprises income tax. We chose a comparative analysis for three basic reasons, namely: (i) taxation principle change occurred: the option to apply the income taxation system has become a liability for the payment of microenterprises income tax, in compliance with certain conditions; (ii) taxation system has an impact on legal persons in Romania, considering that many of them get annual taxable income below 65,000 EUR; (iii) any corporate income tax / income tax payer must annually review the conditions imposed for micro-enterprises and decide which is the system of taxation for the next fiscal year. In the absence of periodic review, fiscal risks of distorting tax liabilities are significant.

  Comparative Fiscal Analysis of Taxation of Income Obtained by Micro-Enterprises in Romania (321.1 KiB, 1,843 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume III, Issue no. 1Comments Off on Comparative Fiscal Analysis of Taxation of Income Obtained by Micro-Enterprises in Romania

Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows

The consolidated financial statements must includ a specific statement, regarding cash flows from all activities of the entity, called „consolidated statement of cash flow”. Information for preparing cash flow statements can be found in all other components of the financial statements, such as financial position, statement of comprehensive income and statement of changes in equity. The cash flow statement shall report cash flows during the period classified by operating, investing and financing activities. Classification by activity provides information that allows users to assess the impact of those activities on the financial position of the entity and the amount of its cash and cash equivalents. An entity shall report cash flows from operating activities using either the direct method or the indirect method under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows.

  Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows (334.7 KiB, 14,539 hits)

Posted in Economics, Volume III, Issue no. 1Comments Off on Presentation of Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows under IAS 7, Statement of Cash Flows

Coaching: A Philosophy, Concept, Tool and Skill

Nowadays you will come across the word ‘coaching’ anytime and anywhere in the world. It is used in education, but also in business. It is used in big organizations, but also in small ones. It is used in non-profit organizations, but also in profit ones. It is used on an executive level, but also on the work floor. You come across various types of coaching, like personal coaching, buddy coaching, peer coaching, executive coaching, board coaching, business coaching, performance coaching, etc.

But what exactly is coaching? Is it a philosophy, a concept, a tool or a skill? When is it useful, and when not. And how can coaching be applied in everyday life? In this article I will give a short summary of important elements of coaching.

  Coaching: A Philosophy, Concept, Tool and Skill (607.0 KiB, 4,144 hits)

Posted in Issue no. 7, Knowledge ManagementComments Off on Coaching: A Philosophy, Concept, Tool and Skill